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2020年全国英语等级考试教材第三级第十二单元健康
来源:学易网校 2019/10/9 15:22:00 【字体:放大正常缩小】【打印页面

  CHAPTER 12 HEALTH AND FITNESS
  Unit 12 Health and Fitness
  Conversations
  PART 1
  Will and Gusta are at an Organic Foods.
  Will:Gusta,I'm starving!What's good here?
  Gusta:Here,have a banana.
  Will:Uhh,is this banana edible?It looks a little brown.
  And what are all these little holes in the lettuce?
  Gusta:Everything here is organic.No pesticides.
  Will:How about fertilizer?
  Gusta:Only natural fertilizers are used.
  I used to work on the farm where they are grown,so I know.
  Will:By natural fertilizer,you mean...
  Gusta:It's best not to think about it while you are eating.
  Will:Right.I'm sorry I asked.
  PART 2
  In the doctor's consultin-room.
  Doctor:Good morning.How are you?
  John:I'm very worried,doctor.
  Doctor:Oh?What are you worried about?
  John:I'm afraid that I'm very ill.
  Doctor:I'm sorry to hear that.Why do you think so?
  John:Because I feel tired all the time,even when I wake up in the morning.
  I have no appetite.
  Doctor:How do you sleep?
  John:Very badly,doctor.I'm worried about my work.
  I'm always afraid of making a mistake.
  Doctor:(The doctor examines the patient.)
  Well,there is nothing very much wrong with you.
  You are working too hard and worrying too much.
  Do you take much exercise?
  John:No,doctor.I never have enough time for exercise.
  Can you give me some medicine to help me to sleep?
  Doctor:I can,but I'm not going to.You don't need medicine.You need advice.
  Don't work so hard.Don't worry about your work.
  Which would you rather have,wealth or health?
  John:You're right,doctor.It's more important to be healthy than wealthy.
  I'll change my job.I'm grateful for your advice.
  Doctor:Come and see me again in a month's time.
  I think you will be a different man!
  PART 3
  Wang and Robert are concerned about the illnesses brought by wealth.
  Wang:Well,yes,new kinds of diseases will replace the old,
  such as cancer,heart trouble...Right?
  Robert:That's true.And diabetes is one of te new diseases.
  Wang:Yes.It can cause heart disease,kidney failure and blindness.
  What is the exact cause of it,do you know?
  Robert:Well,experts say
  it is often the result of primitive bodies living in an increasingly wealthy world.
  Wang:What?The primitive bodies...
  Robert:Well,that is when people were quickly forced from a simple
  to a modern pattern of life,they developed diabetes.
  Wang:Oh,it is terrible.I must be careful about my diet form now on.
  Robert:Well,things are not that bad.
  As long as you keep a traditional life style and diet,plenty of exercise,
  living in the natural environment,you don't develop diabetes.
  Wang:Good idea.
  PART 4
  In the doctor's office.
  Doctor:Hello.What can I do for you today?
  Patient:I've been having severe pains in my stomach and now I feel nauseated.
  Doctor:How many days have you been having these pains?
  Patient:Well,they started about tive days ago
  and for the last three days they have been terrible.
  Doctor:Have you thrown up at all?
  Patient:Yes,I have been sick to my stomach and throwing up.
  Doctor:How many times ahve you vomited.
  Patient:In the last two days,probably four or five times and I still puke.
  Doctor:Are you keeping any food down?
  Patient:No,I'm not.
  Doctor:When you vomit,is there any blood?
  Patient:No.
  Doctor:Good.Are you having any diarrhea?
  Patient:No.
  Doctor:Have you had a fever?
  Patient:I think I have had a low-grade fever,but I haven't taken my temperature.
  I really feel under the weather.
  Doctor:Have you taken any medicine?Patient:No.
  Doctor:Where is your pain?
  Patient:It's right here in my right side.
  Doctor:How would you describe the pain?Is it sharp,dull,aching,or cramping?
  Patient:They are sharp pains.
  Doctor:Could you please sit on the examination table so that I can examine you now?
  Passage
  Lower Salt,Better Health
  Doctors have long known that cutting back on salt
  or sodium can help lower blood pressure in folks with hypertension,
  a silent condition that increases the risk of heart attack and stroke.
  What hasn't been so clear is whether reducing the amount of sodium in the diet
  will benefit those whose blood pressure is normal.
  Now comes word that restricting salt can indeed lower normal blood pressure level.
  Though the effect isn't as great,it's still important,
  according to a study published in The New England Journal of medicine.
  The decrease in blood pressure occurred regardless of race or gender
  and whether or not study participants ate a"typical American diet",
  which is high in saturated fats
  and contains few fruits and vegetables or the so-called DASH
  (for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hyertension)diet,
  which emphasis lots of fresh produce,low-fat diary,
  fish and fewer sweets and which was proved in 1997 to reduce hypertension.
  The biggest decrease in blood pressure in this study
  was recorded in subjects who ate the DASH diet
  and reduced their sodium intake to 1200mg a day.
  Why is this significant?
  Public-health experts estimate that Americans consume,on average,
  about 3500mg of sodium equal to about 9 grams of salt-daily.
  It's not that we're tht heavy-handed with the saltshaker.
  Most of our dietary sodium is added during food processing.
  To get down to 1200mg,you'd have to forgo most prepared foods,
  take-out deliveries and restarurant meals.
  So pay attention to how much salt you're eating,
  but don't forget to make fruits,
  vegetables and whole grains a larger part of your diet.
  They'll help lower your cholesterol level as well as your blood pressure.
  Be sure to drink alcohol moderately,if at all.
  Losing weight-even just 4.5kg-
  and exercising at least 30 minutes most days of the week
  can also have a marked effect on blood pressure.
  Check food labels.
  Pasta sauces,sandwich breads and frozen dinners often contain lots of sodium.
  And remember,even if you don't have to worry about this now,
  you probably will wventually.
  Half of US adults have a blood pressure of at least 120/80 mmHg,
  which is at the high end fo what's considered ideal
  and blood pressure usually increases with age.
  "We can't put everyone on drug therapy,"says Dr.Frank Sacks of the Brigham Women's Hospital in Boston
  and the chairman of the DASH-Sodium Sodium Study.
  But everyone can try to do with a dash of less salt.
  Words and Expressions
  cut back on sodium folk hypertension
  减少钠人们;民族高血压
  risk stroke benefit pressure
  风险中风有益于压力
  restrict decrease regardless of gender
  限制减少,下降不管,不论性别
  participant typical saturated approach
  参加者典型的饱和的方法,途径
  emphasis diary subject intake
  重点奶制品主题摄入
  significant estimate saltshaker dietary
  重大的,意义显著的估计盐瓶饮食的
  forgo cholesterol be sure to do alcohol
  放弃,绝念胆固醇一定要做到酒精
  moderatly label pasta sauce
  适度地标签,标志意大利面食调味料
  ideal therapy dash
  理想的治疗少量掺和物或混和物
  Exercises
  Section I Listening Comprehension
  Listen to the record.
  Answer each question by choosing A,B,C or D from the four possible choices.
  A 1.M:I'm starving!What's good here?
  W:Here,have a banana.Everything here is organic.No pesticides.
  2.W:Different foods are with different calorie values.
  Usually for boys 2 501-2900 grams of daily calorie intake would be enough.
  M:Right.Below 2 200,we would say a boy haing a bird's appetite.
  3.W:For girls,below 1 700 grams of daily calorie intake,it means one is starving.
  So the right amount s 1 901 to 2 200.
  M:How about above 2 201?
  W:But be sure you take regular exercise everyday,
  and you are overeating above 2 400.
  4.M:Good morning.How are you?
  W:I'm very worried.
  M:Oh!What are you worried about?
  W:I'm afraid that I'm ill.
  5.W:Well,there is nothing very much wrong with you.
  You are working too hard and worrying too much.Do you take much exercise?
  M:No.I never have enough time for exercise.
  Can you give me some medicine to telp me to sleep?
  6.M:Well,yes,new kids of diseases will replace the old,
  such as cancer,heart trouble...Right?
  W:That's true.And diabetes is one of the new diseases.
  B M:Well,I'm sorry you're ill.What's the matter with you?
  W:I don't know,doctor.I'm ill.I have a headache and a stomachache.
  M:Show me your tongue.What did you eat yesterday?
  W:I ate some cake.
  M:Did you eat any ice cream?
  W:Well,yes,I did.I ate some ice cream.
  M:Did you eat any candy?
  W:Well,yes,I did.I ate some candy.
  M:Then tell me everything you ate yesterday evening.
  W:Well,doctor.I went to a birthday party.
  M:I see!How many pieces of cake did you eat?
  W:Three,doctor.
  M:How many plates of ice crean did you eat?
  W:Oh,doctor.I had three plates of ice cream.Jean had four.
  C W:My heart is giving me trouble.
  M:Let me listen to your heart...
  Well,Mrs,Jenkins,stop smoking and then you'll soon be quite all right again.
  W:But,I've never smoked.I don't like smoking.
  M:Oh,well,then don't drink any more alcohol.
  W:But I don't drink alcohol.
  M:Stop drinking tea and coffee then.
  W:I only drink water.I don't like tea or coffee.
  M:Well...er...do you like fried potatoes?
  W:Yes,I like them very much.
  M:All right,then stop eating those.
  Supplementary Reading
  Healthy Foods Recommended
  Tomatoes Several studies have linked the cooked tomatoes in ketchup,
  soups and sauces to a reduced risk of prostate cancer
  and other cancers of the digestive tract.
  Tomatoes contain lycopene,
  probably the most powerful antioxidant among the carotenoids,
  the compounds that turn fruits and veggies into deep orange.
  Spinach
  Spinach is loaded with iron and folate,
  a Vitamin B considered so important that it is now routinely added to flour.
  Folate not only prevents neural-tube defects in babies
  but also lowers blood levels of homocysteine,
  an amino acid that irritates blood vessels and is linked to heart disease.
  Red Wine
  The skins of the grapes used to make red wine
  contain supercharged antioxidants known as ployphenol,which boosts HDL cholesterol.
  Polyphenols,according to the latest research,
  may also inhabit the production of endothelia,
  a peptide that contributes to hardening of the arteries.
  Nuts
  The types of fat found in nuts are the good fats.
  When eaten instead of junk food high in saturated fats
  (like potato chips and dough nuts),
  nuts lower blood levels of triglycerides
  and LDL cholesterol while raising HDL cholesterol
  a perfect formula for preventing heart disease.
  Nuts provide another benefit:
  they contain Vitamin E,
  a potent antioxidant that may help ward off heart disease and cancer.
  Broccoli
  Broccoli boasts a fistful of phytochemicals,
  including sulforaphane and indole-3-carbino,
  that may detoxify cancer-causing substances before they have a chance to cause harm.
  In women,indole-3-carbinol may turn the estrogen associated with breast cancer
  into a more benign form.
  Oats
  Oats contain beta-glucan,a spongy,soluble fiber
  that mops up the precursors of cholesterol in the intestines
  and whisks them out of the body.
  New evidence suggests that oats may also help lower blood pressure
  in hypertensive patients.
  Salmon
  Salmon boasts omega-3 fatty acids.
  Omega-3s prevent platelets in the blood from clumping together.
  They also drive down triglycerides and LDL cholesterol.
  Even more tantalizing,
  omega-3 interact with the fatty layers that surround brain cells.
  Green Tea
  Green tea is loaded with polyphenols,
  a class of phytochemicals with 100 times the antioxidant punch of Vitamin C.
  Laboratory experiments suggest that one group of polyphenols in green tea
  called catechins may inhabit.
  The growth of new blood vessels,
  which some scientists think may help prevent cancer
  by depriving early tumors of nourishment.
  Catechins may also prevent DNA damage caused by carcinogens.
  Drinking green tea daily can lower the risk of stomach and liver cancers.
  Swishing green tea around the mouth may inhabit cavity-causing bacteria.
  Applied to the skin of laboratory mice,
  it also seems to reduce the incidence of skin cancer.
  Blueberries
  The most powerful health-promoting compounds in blueberries are anthocyanins.
  Besides combatting the free-radical damage linkied to heart disease and cancer,
  anthocyanins may boost brainpower.
  Another blueberry benefit is:
  like cranberries,they seem to fight off urinary-tract infections by preventing
  E.coli bacteria from adhering to the bladder wall.

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