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2012年职称英语精选模拟试题四(附答案解析)
来源:学易网校 2012-3-16 17:08:00 【字体:放大正常缩小】【打印页面

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21、难度B/A级

Obesity(肥胖): the scourge(祸害)of the western world

Obesity is rapidly becoming a new scourge of the western world,delegates agreed at the 11th European Conference on the issue in Vienna Wednesday to Saturday.According to statements before the opening of the conference—of 2,000 specialists from more than 50 countries—1.2 billion people worldwide are overweight,and 250 million are obese.

Professor Bernhard Ludvik of Vienna General Hospital said:“Obesity is a chronic illness.In Germany,20 per cent of the people are already affected,but in Japan only one per cent.’’But he said that there was hope for sufferers thanks to the new scientific discoveries and medication.

Professor Friedrich Hopichler of Salzberg said:“We are living in the new age(but) with the metabolism of a stone—age man.” “I have just been to the United States.It is really terrible.A pizza shop is springing up on every corner.We have been overrun by fast food and Coca-Cola-ization.”

Many of the experts stressed that obesity was a potential killer.Hopichler said:‘‘Eighty percent of all diabetics are obese,also fifty per cent of all patients with high blood pressure and fifty per cent with adipose tissue complaints.’’ “Ten per cent more weight means thirteen per cent more risk of heart disease.Reducing one’s weight by ten per cent leads to thirteen per cent lower blood pressure.’’

Another expert Hermann Toplak said that the state health services should improve their financing of preventive programs.“Though the health insurance pays for surgery (such as reducing the size of the stomach)when the body-mass index is more than 40.That is equivalent to a weight of 116 kilograms for a height of 1.70 meters.One should start earlier.”

Ludvik said that prevention should begin in school.“Child obesity (fat deposits)correlates with the time which children spend in front of TV sets.”

The consequences were only apparent later on.No more than fifteen per cent of obese people lived to the average life expectancy。for their population group.

词汇:

scourge/n.天灾;祸害

pizza//n.(意大利式)烤馅饼,比萨饼

obesity/n.肥胖症

overrun/vt.侵扰;蹂躏

obese/adj.肥胖的

diabetic/n.糖尿病患者;adj.糖尿病的

medication/n.药物疗法

adipose/脂肪的;肥胖的

metabolism/n.新陈代谢

练习:

1.It is estimated that there are __________ people suffering from obesity in the world.

A)250,000,000B)1,200,000,000

C)1,450,000,000 D)950,000,000

2.It seems that the __________ people are least affected by obesity among the developed countries and areas mentioned in the passage.

A、European B、German C、American  D、Japanese

3.Which of the following is most often accompanied by obesity?

A、High blood pressure. B、Fatty tissue complaints.

C、Diabetes. D、Stomach—ache.

4.What is the correlation between body weight and heart disease and blood pressure?

A、Ten per cent less body weight means ten per cent less risk of heart disease and high blood pressure?

B、Thirteen per cent more body weight means ten per cent more risk of heart disease and high blood pressure.

C、The more body weight one gains,the more risk of heart disease and high blood pressure he has.

D、The less body weight one gains,the more risk of heart disease and the less risk of high blood pressure he has.

5.From the last paragraph we may infer that one of the effective measures suggested by Ludnik to prevent children from being obese would be

A、not to permit them to watch TV at all.

B、to tell them to spend less time watching TV

C、to turn off TV when they are in front of TV sets.

D、to calculate accurately the time that a child spends watching TV.

标准答案: A,D,C,C,B

22、难度A/B级

DNA fingerprinting

DNA is the genetic material found within the cell nuclei of all living things.In mammals the strands of DNA are grouped into structures called chromosomes.With the exception of identical siblings(as in identical twins).the complete DNA of each individual is unique.

DNA fingerprinting is sometimes called DNA typing.It is a method of identification that compares bits of DNA.A DNA fingerprint is constructed by first drawing out a DNA sample from body tissue or fluid such as hair,blood,or saliva.The sample is then segmented using enzymes,and the segments are arranged by size.The segments are marked with probes and exposed on X—ray film,where they form a pattern of black bars—the DNA fingerprint.If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match.the two samples probably came from the same person.

DNA fingerprinting was first developed as all identification technique in 1 985.originally used to detect the presence of genetic diseases.it soon came to be used in criminal investigations and legal affairs.The first criminal conviction based on DNA evidence in the United States occurred in 1988.In criminal investigations.DNA fingerprints derived from evidence collected at the crime scene are compared to the DNA fingerprints of suspects.Generally,coups have accepted the reliability of DNA testing and admitted DNA test results into evidence.However。

DNA fingerprinting is controversial in a number of areas:the accuracy of the results.the cost 0f testing,and the possible misuse of the technique.

The accuracy of DNA fingerprinting has been challenged for several reasons.First,because DNA segments rather than complete DNA strands are“fingerprinted”:a DNA fingerprint may not be unique;large—scale research to confirm the uniqueness of DNA fingerprinting test results has not been conducted.In addition.DNA fingerprinting is often done in private laboratories that may not follow uniform testing standards and quality controls.Also,since human beings must

interpret the test, human error could lead to false results.

DNA fingerprinting is expensive.Suspects who are unable to provide their own DNA to experts may not be able to successfully defend themselves against charges based on DNA evidence.

Widespread use 5f DNA testing for identification purposes may lead to the establishment of a DNA fingerprint database.

练习:

1.According to the essay,we can find chromosomes

A)in a fish. B)in a tree.

C)in a sheep. D)in a rock.

2.DNA fingerprinting is more often used for

A)obtaining samples of chromosomes. B)providing evidence in court investigations.

C)proving the horse to be a mammal.  D)printing books about biology

3.When your brother looks exactly like you,your complete DNA may be

A) exactly like his.  B) totally different from his

C) unique. D) lost.

4.Some people believe that using a DNA fingerprint may not be SO reliable because

A)the accuracy of DNA fingerprinting has been challenged.

B) no private laboratory follows uniform testing standards or quality controls.

C)mistakes are possible when researchers explain the results of their tests.

D)suspects may not have enough money to provide their own DNA to law-courts

5.This essay talks about DNA fingerprinting concerning the following aspects EXCEPT

A)legal application of the method.

B)the way to obtain a DNA sample.

C)work yet to be done about DNA fingerprinting.

D)possible danger in drawing a DNA sample from the human body.

标准答案: C,B,A,C,D

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