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当前位置:学易网校 > 考研 > 在职硕士英语 > 模拟试题 > 在职申硕英语考试模拟专项练习(6)


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    Relativity theory has had a profound influence on our picture of matter by forcing us to modify our concept of a particle in an essential way. (47)In classical physics, the mass of an object had always been associated with an indestructible material substance, with some “stuff” of which all things were thought to be made. Relativity theory showed that mass has nothing to do with any substance, but is a form energy. Energy, however, is a dynamic quantity associated with activity, or with processes.(48)The fact that the mass of a particle is equivalent to a certain of energy means that the particle can no longer be seen as a static object, but has to be conceived as a dynamic pattern, a process involving the energy which manifest itself as the particle’s mass.
    (49)This new view of particles was initiated by Dirac when he formulated a relativistic equation describing the behavior of electrons. Dirac’s theory was not only extremely successful in accounting for the fine details of atomic structure, but also revealed a fundamental symmetry between matter and anti-matter. It predicted the existence of an anti-matter with the same mass as the electron but with an opposite charge. This positively charged particle, now called the positron, was indeed discovered two years after Dirac had predicted it. The symmetry between matter and anti-matter implies that for every particle there exists an antiparticles with equal mass and opposite charge. Pairs of particles and antiparticles can be created if enough energy is available and can be made to turn into pure energy in the reverse process of destruction.(50)These processes of particle creation and destruction had been predicted from Dirac’s theory before they were actually discovered in nature, and since then they have been observed millions of times.
    The creation of material particles from pure energy is certainly the most spectacular effect of relativity theory, and it can only be understood in terms of the view of particles outlined above.(51)Before relativistic particle physics, the constituents of matter had always been considered as being either elementary units which were indestructible and unchangeable, or as composite objects which could be broken up into their constituent parts; and the basic question was whether one could divide matter again and again, or whether one would finally arrive at some smallest indivisible units.
    47.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:被动语态、定语从句的译法。
    该句的句子主干是:the mass ... had always been associated with an indestructible material substance,其中完成时的被动语态had been associated with,可译成“总是与...相关联”。with some “stuff” of which引导的定语从句修饰indestructible material substance,翻译的时候应该按照汉语习惯,将定语前置,放到所修饰的名词前面。可直译为“所有物质被认为是由这种物质构成的”,或意译为“这是构成一切物质的东西”。考生应该注意of 与be made是词组be made of被分隔了的形式,译成“由...构成的”。
    48.[精解] 本题考核知识点:同位语、宾语从句、定语从句、现在分词作定语的译法。
    该句的句子主干是The fact means that...,fact后是that 引导的同位语从句,同位语从句的翻译和定语从句翻译有很多相似之处,如果句子较长,可单独成句,并用“这一事实...”将从句和主语连接在一起,that可以省略不译。Means后是that引导的宾语从句,其中有两个并列的谓语:can no longer be seen as和has to be conceived as,译为“不能再被看成...,而应该被看成...”。a process 是宾语补足语a dynamic pattern的同位语,可以译成并列结构。Involving...部分是现在分词作定语,修饰a process,按照汉语习惯译成“与……有关的过程”。Which...mass是定语从句,修饰the energy,可译成“表现为粒子质量的能量。”
    词汇:be equivalent to“等同于,相当于”。 Be conceived as“被看成,被认为”。Dynamic“动力的,动态的”。
    49.[精解] 本题考核知识点:被动语态、状语从句、现在分词作定语的译法。
    该句的句子主干是被动语态结构This new view of particles was initiated by Dirac,在翻译被动语态时,通常按照汉语习惯转换成主动语态,但是有时候为了突出施动者,也可译成“由...所做的”。该句中为了突出initiated这一动作是由Dirac发出,应译成“这一观点是由...首创的”。When 引导时间状语从句,可译成“当...的时候”,或者为了突出正在发生的事件,译成“那时候...”。describing ... electrons部分是现在分词作定语,修饰relativistic equation,应该按照汉语习惯译成“描述电子运动行为的相对论方程”。
    词汇:initiated“开始,发起”,句中译为“首创”。Formulated“用公式表达,明确地表达“。relativistic equation“相对论方程”。
    50.[精解] 本体考核知识点:状语从句、被动语态的译法。
    该句由两个并列的分句构成:These processes had been predicted和since then they have been observed。前一分句中of particle creation and destruction部分是介词短语作定语,修饰主语processes,应译为“粒子生成和毁灭的过程”。Before...in nature部分为时间状语,翻译时,可按照汉语习惯前置,译成“在...之前”。后一分句中的时间状语since then可译成“在..之后”或“从那时”。此外翻译被动语态结构had been predicted from Dirac’s theory时,为了突出施动者,可以按照汉语习惯,译为主动结构。
    词汇:creation and destruction“生成和毁灭”。predict“预测,预言”,文中谈论的是科学现象,应该译为“预测”。in nature“实际上”。
    51.[精解] 本题考核知识点:完成时的被动语态、状语从句、定语从句、either...or结构的译法。
    该句的句子主干是:the constituents of matter had always been considered as either...or....。完成时的被动语态had always been considered,可按照汉语习惯译成主动语态,即“人们一直以为”。状语before...可直接翻译,在句中位置不变。Either...or...句型应该译成“或者...或者...”,也可以译成“要么...要么...”。本句中两个as...部分均为宾语补足语,与consider一起译成“看成是...”。两个which引导定语从句,修饰两个宾语补足语,翻译时采用前置法将定语提前。
    词汇:relativistic particle physics“相对粒子物理学”,constituents of matter“物质构成成分”, composite objects“合成物”。